A child's testicles develop before birth. They start inside the abdomen. The testicles should then move down into the scrotum just before birth. Undescended testes stay in or return to the abdomen. A true undescended testicles situation is present at birth. The testicle remains in the abdomen until treated. Other situations that allow the testicles to go up into the abdomen include:
- Retractile testicles—the testicles can move freely between the scrotum and abdomen. This condition does not require treatment and usually disappears by puberty.
- Ascending testicles—a normal testicle returns to the abdomen
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Undescended testicles are often caused by a disruption in the development of the testicles. The cause of this disruption is not clear. Genetics may play a role. There may also be some problems with the hormones that help testes develop. The testicles may also have been injured at some point during the pregnancy.
Factors that may increase your child's risk of undescended testicles include:
The main symptom is not being able to see or feel the testicle.
The doctor will ask about your child's symptoms and medical history. A
will be done. A diagnosis is usually made during the physical exam. The doctor will note that one or both of the child’s testes cannot be felt within his scrotum.
The doctor may need to view your child's bodily structures. This can be done with
Undescended testicles are treated because they may increase the risk of certain health conditions such as:
- Infertility or low fertility—a testicle is more likely to produce sperm in cooler temperature as in the scrotum, the heat inside the body is too high for sperm production.
- Testicular cancer
- Torsion—testicles twist enough so that they cut off the blood flow to the testes. This can cause severe damage to the testicles.
- Emotional distress—as the child ages, they may have problems with the appearance of the empty scrotum.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include:
Giving the problem time to go away on its own:
- In most children, the testes will descend on their own by four months of age.
- Retractile testicles will completely descend at puberty. Further treatment is not needed.
Hormone therapy with
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
- This treatment is not used often.
- The hormone helps stimulate testicle development. This may encourage the testicle to move down.
Surgery called orchiopexy:
- This is done while your child is asleep under anesthesia.
- It is often done with laparoscopic surgery. The doctor make tiny incisions in the area.
- The testicle is moved down and stitched into place.
There is no known way to prevent undescended testes.
American Academy of Pediatrics
National Infertility Association
Infertility Awareness Association of Canada
Cryptorchidism. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
. Updated June 27, 2013. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Docimo S, et al. The Undescended Testicle: Diagnosis and Management.
Am Fam Physician
. 2000 Nov 1;62(9):2037
Undescended testicles. American Academy of Family Physicians Family doctor website. Available at:
. Updated December 2010. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Undescended testicles. American Academy of Pediatrics' Healthy Children website. Available at:
. Updated March 11, 2013. Accessed July 16, 2013.