Supplement Forms/Alternate Names :
Kelp refers to several species of large, brown algae that can grow to enormous sizes far out in the depths of the ocean. Kelp is a type of seaweed, but not all seaweed is kelp: "seaweed" loosely describes any type of vegetation growing in the ocean, including many other types of algae and plants.
Kelp is a regular part of a normal human diet in many parts of the world, such as Japan, Alaska, and Hawaii. It is also incorporated into some vitamin and mineral supplements because of its nutrient value. Kelp is a good source of
(a B vitamin), as well as many other vitamins and minerals—especially
; but iodine is also a potential source of side effects (see
Supplements containing kelp can be purchased at most pharmacies and health food stores. Kelp used in food preparation is available at groceries that stock specialties for Asian cooking.
There is no appropriate "therapeutic" dosage of kelp, as it is not yet known whether kelp is truly therapeutic for any conditions. However, because of its high iodine content, it is important not to overdo your use of kelp. The iodine content in 17 different kelp supplements studied by one group of researchers varied from 45 to 57,000 mcg per tablet or capsule.
The recommended daily intake for iodine is 150 mcg per day for people over the age of four, and taking a great deal more than this can cause thyroid problems (see
Kelp is used primarily as a nutrient-rich food supplement.
The results of highly preliminary
studies have suggested other potential uses for kelp. For example, there is some evidence that elements in kelp might help to prevent infection with several kinds of viruses, including
Similarly weak evidence hints that kelp possesses
and may lower
However, far more research, including
double-blind, placebo-controlled studies
, would be necessary to know whether kelp is actually helpful for any of these health problems. (For information on why this type of study is essential, see
Why Does This Database Depend on Double-Blind Studies?
Additionally, kelp has been marketed as a
, but there are no meaningful scientific studies to indicate that it is effective for this purpose.
Another common claim regarding kelp is that, because of its high iodine content, it can help all kinds of thyroid problems. This claim, however, is misleading and even dangerous. It is true that if you are deficient in iodine, kelp is probably good for you, but iodine deficiency is rare, and taking extra iodine when you don’t need it can
dysfunction of the thyroid (see
Taking excessive kelp can overload the body with iodine and cause either
—conditions in which the thyroid gland either produces too little or too much thyroid hormone.
This is a potentially dangerous side effect and is definitely cause for caution. If your thyroid gland is already functioning incorrectly, you should avoid high doses of kelp except on a physician's advice.
Additionally, published reports describe two cases of
apparently caused or worsened by taking large doses of kelp.
This effect is also believed to be due to the large amounts of iodine in the supplement.
Finally, some kelp supplements have been found to contain levels of arsenic high enough to be toxic.
Seawater contains highly diluted arsenic, but kelp (like other ocean life) can concentrate arsenic in its tissues, and there are reports of two people with symptoms of arsenic poisoning who had been consuming kelp.
Norman JA, Pickford CJ, Sanders TW, et al. Human intake of arsenic and iodine from seaweed-based food supplements and health foods available in the UK.
Food Addit Contam
Kathan RH. Kelp extracts as antiviral substances.
Ann N Y Acad Sci
Carlucci MJ, Ciancia M, Matulewicz MC, et al. Antiherpetic activity and mode of action of natural carrageenans of diverse structural types.
Lee JB, Hayashi K, Hayashi T, et al. Antiviral activities against HSV-1, HCMV, and HIV-1 of rhamnan sulfate from
Chida K, Yamamoto I. Antitumor activity of a crude fucoidan fraction prepared from the roots of kelp (
Kitasato Arch Exp Med
Maruyama H, Watanabe K, Yamamoto I. Effect of dietary kelp on lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity in livers of rats given breast carcinogen DMBA.
Teas J. The dietary intake of
, a brown seaweed, and breast cancer prevention.
Funahashi H, Imai T, Tanaka Y, et al. Wakame seaweed suppresses the proliferation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene-induced mammary tumors in rats.
Jpn J Cancer Res
Shan BE, Yoshida Y, Kuroda E, et al. Immunomodulating activity of seaweed extract on human lymphocytes
Int J Immunopharmacol
Ohno Y, Yoshida O, Oishi K, et al. Dietary beta-carotene and cancer of the prostate: a case-control study in Kyoto, Japan.
Chiu KW, Fung AY. The cardiovascular effects of green beans (
), common rue (
), and kelp (
) in rats.
Konno N, Makita H, Yuri K, et al. Association between dietary iodine intake and prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the coastal regions of Japan.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Eliason C. Transient hyperthyroidism in a patient taking dietary supplements containing kelp.
J Am Board Fam Pract
Shilo S, Hirsch HJ. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in a patient with a normal thyroid gland.
Postgrad Med J
Okamura K, Inoue K, Omae T. A case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid immunological abnormality manifested after habitual ingestion of seaweed.
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh)
Tajiri J, Higashi K, Morita M, et al. Studies of hypothyroidism in patients with high iodine intake.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Yamaguchi K, Fukushima H, Uzawa H, et al. A case of iodide myxedema observed for three years under a low iodide diet—especially on the restoration of the escape mechanism from the Wolff-Chaikoff effect.
Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi
Ishizuki Y, Yamauchi K, Miura Y. Transient thyrotoxicosis induced by Japanese kombu.
Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi
Harrell BL, Rudolph AH. Kelp diet: a cause of acneiform eruption [letter].
Pye KG, Kelsey SM, House IM, et al. Severe dyserythropoiesis and autoimmune thrombocytopenia associated with ingestion of kelp supplements.
Walkiw G, Douglas DE. Health food supplements prepared from kelp—a source of elevated urinary arsenic.
Clark MD CD, Bassett MD B, Burge MD MR. Effects of kelp supplementation on thyroid function in euthyroid subjects.
Amster E, Tiwary A, Schenker MB. Case report: potential arsenic toxicosis secondary to herbal kelp supplement.
Environ Health Perspect