Screening for Hypothyroidism
The purpose of screening is early diagnosis and treatment. Screening tests are usually given to people who do not have current symptoms, but who may be at high risk for certain diseases or conditions. Screening for hypothyroidism remains under question because there is no evidence showing that it benefits patients.
A physical exam by your doctor may reveal signs of hypothyroidism. These signs may include dry skin, a slow pulse, or slowed reflexes. A thorough history may reveal symptoms of weight gain, fatigue, and constipation.
The best screening test is a blood test that measures thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A high level of TSH suggests hypothyroidism. If this is high, then your doctor may order a free thyroxine (FT4).
The United States Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening of adults for thyroid disease. The American Thyroid Association recommends screening adults every 5 years starting at age 35 years. Other organizations may have different recommendations.
Screening may be needed in special high-risk groups such as:
- All newborn infants (required in many states)
- Pregnant women with or without goiter
- A strong family history of thyroid disease
- A personal history of thyroid problems
An autoimmune disease, such as
type 1 diabetes
, especially those taking
- Elevated lipid levels
- A thyroid nodule
- Down syndrome
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