Risk Factors for Preterm Labor and Delivery
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to have
with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of having preterm labor. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Non-white women under the 18 years or over 35 years have an increased risk of preterm labor. Other factors that may increase your risk include:
Current and past pregnancy:
- A previous preterm birth
- Placental abruption
- Premature rupture of the membranes
- Carrying more than one baby
- Vaginal bleeding after 16 weeks, or during more than one trimester
Being pregnant with a single fetus after
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
- Less than six months between giving birth and the beginning of the next pregnancy
- Presence of a retained intrauterine device
- History of one or more spontaneous second-trimester abortions
- Too much or too little fluid in the amniotic sac surrounding the baby
- Surgery on your abdomen during pregnancy
- Intrauterine fetal death
- Intrauterine growth delay
- Birth defects in the baby
History of reproductive organ problems:
- Abnormally shaped uterus
- Incompetent cervix—The cervix dilates too early in the pregnancy
- Infection in the cervix, uterus, or vagina
- Amniotic fluid infection
Urinary tract infections
Sexually transmitted diseases
- Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES)—Before its dangers were known, DES was given to pregnant women to decrease the risk of miscarriage; if your mother took DES while she was pregnant with you, your reproductive organs may be damaged. DES has not been used since the 1970s.
Physical and psychological causes:
Being underweight or
prior to pregnancy
- A previous bariatric surgery
- Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse
High blood pressure
- Clotting disorders
- Hormonal imbalance
- Certain medications
Prematurity. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated April 18, 2013 . Accessed April 23, 2013.
Preterm labor. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at:
http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq087.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130423T0923201528. Accessed April 23, 2013.
Preterm labor. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated March 15, 2013 . Accessed April 23, 2013.
Preterm labor and birth. March of Dimes website. Available at:
http://www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/preterm%5Findepth.html. Updated September 2012. Accessed April 23, 2013.
Who is at risk for preterm labor and birth? National Institute of Child Health & Human Development website. Available at:
hhttp://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/preterm/conditioninfo/Pages/who%5Frisk.aspx. Updated November 30, 2012. Accessed April 23, 2013.
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https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: McDonald SD, Han Z, Mulla S, Beyene J; Knowledge Synthesis Group. Overweight and obesity in mothers and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight infants: systematic review and meta-analyses.
11/19/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
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4/29/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Huybrechts KF, Sanghani RS, et al. Preterm birth and antidepressant medication use during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 26;9(3):e92778.